RNA

## General Information (more on wikipedia)

 Molecular Weight (g/mol) Density (g/L) Radius (m) Reference Species RNA variable D R [1]

Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions of ribosomes, and acts as an essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis.

RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: RNA nucleotides contain ribose sugars while DNA contains deoxyribose and RNA uses predominantly uracil instead of thymine present in DNA. RNA is transcribed (synthesized) from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and further processed by other enzymes. RNA serves as the template for translation of genes into proteins, transferring amino acids to the ribosome to form proteins, and also translating the transcript into proteins.

Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868 (some sources indicate 1869) by Johann Friedrich Miescher (1844-1895), who called the material 'nuclein' since it was found in the nucleus. It was later discovered that prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus, also contain nucleic acids. The role of RNA in protein synthesis had been suspected since 1939, based on experiments carried out by Torbjörn Caspersson, Jean Brachet and Jack Schultz. Hubert Chantrenne elucidated the messenger role played by RNA in the synthesis of proteins in ribosome. The sequence of the 77 nucleotides of a yeast RNA was found by Robert W. Holley in 1964, winning Holley the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine. In 1976, Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent determined the complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA.

• Alone:

## Diffusion of mRNA in cytoplasm

• Alone:
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in endogenous cytoplasm at 25 degrees: $D = 0.021 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in endogenous cytoplasm at 37 degrees: $D = 0.029 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• ATP-GFP-mRNA 96mer in endogenous cytoplasm at 37 degrees: $D = 0.035 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in synthetic cytoplasm at 25 degrees: $D = 0.033 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in synthetic cytoplasm at 37 degrees: $D = 0.096 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• ATP-GFP-mRNA 96mer in synthetic cytoplasm at 37 degrees: $D = 0.087 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]

## Diffusion of mRNA in nuclei

• Alone:
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in endogenous nuclei at 25 degrees: $D = 0.018 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in endogenous nuclei at 37 degrees: $D = 0.033 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• ATP-GFP-mRNA 96mer in endogenous nuclei at 37 degrees: $D = 0.034 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in synthetic nuclei at 25 degrees: $D = 0.043 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• GFP-mRNA 96mer in synthetic nuclei at 37 degrees: $D = 0.061 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
• ATP-GFP-mRNA 96mer in synthetic nuclei at 37 degrees: $D = 0.043 \ \mu m^{2}s^{-1}$ [1]
Bibliography
1. PNAS | November 22, 2005 | vol. 102 | no. 47 | 17008-17013